Commercial ads seek to generate increased consumption of their products or services through "branding," which associates a product name or image with certain qualities in the minds of consumers. Non-commercial advertisers who spend money to advertise items other than a consumer product or service include political parties, interest groups, religious organizations and governmental agencies. Non-profit organizations may use free modes of persuasion, such as a public service announcement.
The Billboard 200 is a record chart ranking the 200 highest-ranking music albums and EPs in the United States, published weekly by Billboard magazine. It is frequently used to convey the popularity of an artist or groups of artists. Often, a recording act will be remembered by its "number ones", those of their albums that outperformed all others during at least one week.
The chart is based mostly on sales (both at retail and digitally) of albums in the United States. The weekly sales period was originally Monday to Sunday when Nielsen started tracking sales in 1991, but since July 2015, tracking week begins on Friday (to coincide with the Global Release Date of the music industry) and ends on Thursday. A new chart is published the following Tuesday with an issue post-dated to the Saturday of the following week. The chart's streaming schedule is also tracked from Friday to Thursday.
New product is released to the American market on Fridays. Digital downloads of albums are also included in Billboard 200 tabulation. Albums that are not licensed for retail sale in the United States (yet purchased in the U.S. as imports) are not eligible to chart. A long-standing policy which made titles that are sold exclusively by specific retail outlets (such as Walmart and Starbucks) ineligible for charting, was reversed on November 7, 2007, and took effect in the issue dated November 17.
Screen was first published on 26 September 1951 with Manorama Katju as its managing editor. She was succeeded in 1959 by S.S. Pillai who died in office in 1977. The magazines was started by the Indian Express newspaper group.
B. K. Karanjia who was previously editor of Filmfare, stayed Screen editor for 10 years.Udaya Tara Nayar, rose the ranks within Screen Magazine and became the editor between 1988-1996 and 1998-2000. Veteran film journalist, Bhawana Somaaya was the editor of the magazine (2000-2007). In 2007 she was replaced by Ex- Society Magazine and HT Style/Saturday editor Priyanka Sinha Jha who remains the editor till date.
Screen organizes and sponsors the Screen Awards for movies in Hindi cinema, established in 1995. It also sponsors Screen Gold Medal for excellence in direction at the Film and Television Institute, established in 1967.
Blend modes (or Mixing modes) in digital image editing are used to determine how two layers are blended into each other. The default blend mode in most applications is simply to hide the lower layer with whatever is present in the top layer. However, as each pixel has a numerical representation, a large number of ways to blend two layers is possible.
Note that the top layer is not necessarily called a "layer" in the application. It may be applied with a painting or editing tool.
This is the standard blend mode which uses the top layer alone, without mixing its colors with the layer beneath it.
Where a is the value of a color channel in the underlying layer, and b is that of the corresponding channel of the upper layer. The result is most typically merged into the bottom layer using "simple" (b over a) alpha compositing, but other Porter-Duff operations are possible. The compositing step results in the top layer's shape, as defined by its alpha channel, appearing over the bottom layer.